Transport, Location Theory and Urban Economics : new challenges


Objectif

The lectures begin by presenting key elements of economic analysis adapted to transportation economics. Lectures will be devoted to demand analysis, costs analysis, introduction to the concept of externalities, market analysis related to transport, location theory and urban economics. Then the student will be exposed to the major theories used in transportation, in environmental economics and in urban economics. The course will address practical issues, such that the construction of consistent transport models and the pro- and the con- of road pricing including the study of alternatives to road pricing (such as mobility right). Finally, some discussion will be devoted to the competition and the regulation in the transport sector and to the ongoing revolution in the mobility sector (such as the autonomous car or Big Data). Examples will be borrowed from the areas of transport, energy, or urban utilities.

Plan

1. What about transportation economics? Urbanization, regional models (core-periphery)?, Transportation, and Land Use over the world. Analytical urban models and large-scale LUTI models UrbanSim: 27/1/2016
2. Demand analysis I: Theory of discrete choice models (D. McFadden, M.  Ben-Akiva, K. Small, K. Train, C. Bhat) 3/2/2016
3. Demand analysis II: Application to mode choice and automobile ownership with collective models) with Sophie Dantan 10/2/2016
4. Location theory, H. Hotelling, Salop, Thisse. Pricing policies.  Emergence of central space (T. Smith, Y. Papageorgiou, Starret). Agglomeration effects: I  17/2/2016
5. Introduction to Transport Economics. Static models: one route, 2 route, general network. The 4-stage approach. 2/3/2016 
6. Dynamic models (W. Vickrey) I: private transportation –analytical and METROPOLIS for large networks. Treatment of Uncertainty. 9/3/2016
7. Dynamic models II: Public transportation, scheduling, H. Mohring effects, congestion effects. Pricing of public transport : study of the 2015 reform in Ile-de-France. Competition between transport modes.  Aviation example. 16/03/2016
8. Policy analysis I: Cost-benefit analysis. Tiebout hypothesis, Henry Georges theorem, fiscal federalism. Measure of compensation, 23/3/16
9. Policy analysis II: EU legislation, opening markets, no discrimination national foreign.  Externalities (air pollution, noise, accidents, wear and tear of roads). Subsidy of rail, freight, trucks,  30/3/2016
10. Transportation paradoxes (Braess, Pigou Knight, Downs-Thomson). (R. Lindsey), 6/4/2016
11. Part I: Road pricing: Theory and practice, public and political constraints on pricing from international focus (Canada and France). Part II: Issues related to climate change: effects of climate change on transportation infrastructure. (R. Lindsey), 13/4/2016.
12. Presentation of the students. 20/4/2016

Références

– Anderson, M. L. (2014). “Subways, Strikes, and Slowdowns: The Impacts of Public Transit on Traffic Congestion.” American Economic Review, 104(9): 2763–96.
– Anderson, S., A. de Palma and J.-F. Thisse (1992), Discrete Choice Theory of Product Differentiation, MIT Press.
– Arnott, R. and M. Kraus (2003), "Transport Economics", in R. W. Hall (eds.), Handbook of Transportation Science, Second Edition, International Series in Operations Research and Management Science 56, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
– Arnott, R., T. Rave and R. Schob (2005), Alleviating Urban Traffic Congestion, Cambridge: MIT Press.
– Aschauer, D.A. (1989), “Is public expenditure productive?”, Journal of Monetary Economics 23, 177-200.
– Bierlaire, M., A. de Palma, R Hurtubia and P. Waddell (eds.) (2015), Integrated transport and land use modeling for sustainable cities. Routledge and EPFL Press.
– Bogart, D. E. (2012), “Modern transport since 1700: A momentous achievement”
– de Palma, A., R. Lindsey and N. Picard (2006), “Urban passenger travel demand”, in R. Arnott and D. MacMillen (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Urban Economics, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Chapter 16, 2006, 261-280.
– de Palma, and E. Quinet (eds.) (2005), La tarification des transports, Enjeux et défis. Economica.
– de Palma, A., R. Lindsey and S. Proost (eds.) (2007), Investment and the Use of Tax and Toll Revenues in the Transport Sector, Elsevier Science.
– de Palma, A., R. Lindsey, E. Quinet and R. Vickerman (eds.)(2011), Handbook in Transport Economics, Volume 1 and 2, Edgar Elgard.
– Duranton, G., and M. A. Turner. (2011). “The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from US Cities.” American Economic Review, 101(6): 2616–52.
– McFadden, D. (1999), "Rationality for Economists", Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 19(1/3), 73-105.
– Parry, I., and K.A. Small. (2009). “Should Urban Transit Subsidies be Reduced?” American Economic Review, 99(3): 700–724.
– Quinet, E. and R. Vickerman (2004), Principles of Transport Economics, Cheltenham and Northampton, Mass: Edward Elgar.
– Small, K.A. (1992), Urban Transportation Economics, Vol. 51 of Fundamentals of Pure and Applied Economics Series, Harwood Academic Press.
– Small, K.A. and E.T. Verhoef (2007), The Economics of Urban Transportation, 2nd Edition, London and New York: Routledge.
– Vickrey, W. S. (1963). “Pricing in Urban and Suburban Transport.” American Economic Review, 53(2): 452–465.
– Vickrey, W. S. (1969). “Congestion Theory and Transport Investment.” American Economic Review, 59(2): 251–260.
– Walters, A., (1987), “Transportation.” The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics Vol. 4, New York: Macmillan, 695-701.